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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072027

Asperuloside and Asperulosidic Acid Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Effect via Suppression of the NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages

1
Bioengineering Research Centre, Guangzhou Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458, China
2
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Natural Products for Human Health)
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Abstract

Hedyotis diffusa is a folk herb that is used for treating inflammation-related diseases in Asia. Previous studies have found that iridoids in H. diffusa play an important role in its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and potential mechanism of five iridoids (asperuloside (ASP), asperulosidic acid (ASPA), desacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA), scandoside methyl ester (SME), and E-6-O-p-coumaroyl scandoside methyl ester (CSME)) that are presented in H. diffusa using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)—induced RAW 264.7 cells. ASP and ASPA significantly decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in parallel with the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. ASP treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of the inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappaB alpha (IκB-α), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The inhibitory effect of ASPA was similar to that of ASP, except for p38 phosphorylation. In summary, the anti-inflammatory effects of ASP and ASPA are related to the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppression of the NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, which provides scientific evidence for the potential application of H. diffusa. View Full-Text
Keywords: iridoids; nuclear factor-kappaB; mitogen-activated protein kinase; anti-inflammation iridoids; nuclear factor-kappaB; mitogen-activated protein kinase; anti-inflammation
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He, J.; Lu, X.; Wei, T.; Dong, Y.; Cai, Z.; Tang, L.; Liu, M. Asperuloside and Asperulosidic Acid Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Effect via Suppression of the NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2027.

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