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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020555

Impact of DNA and RNA Methylation on Radiobiology and Cancer Progression

1
Radiation Biology Research Center, Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung University/Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
2
Kidney Research Center and Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Immunology Consortium, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
3
Department of Nursing, Chang-Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
4
Department of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi 613, Taiwan
5
Liver Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
6
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
7
Research Center for Chinese Herbal Medicine, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 10 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [299 KB, uploaded 12 February 2018]

Abstract

Radiotherapy is a well-established regimen for nearly half the cancer patients worldwide. However, not all cancer patients respond to irradiation treatment, and radioresistance is highly associated with poor prognosis and risk of recurrence. Elucidation of the biological characteristics of radioresistance and development of effective prognostic markers to guide clinical decision making clearly remain an urgent medical requirement. In tumorigenic and radioresistant cancer cell populations, phenotypic switch is observed during the course of irradiation treatment, which is associated with both stable genetic and epigenetic changes. While the importance of epigenetic changes is widely accepted, the irradiation-triggered specific epigenetic alterations at the molecular level are incompletely defined. The present review provides a summary of current studies on the molecular functions of DNA and RNA m6A methylation, the key epigenetic mechanisms involved in regulating the expression of genetic information, in resistance to irradiation and cancer progression. We additionally discuss the effects of DNA methylation and RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) of specific genes in cancer progression, recurrence, and radioresistance. As epigenetic alterations could be reversed by drug treatment or inhibition of specific genes, they are also considered potential targets for anticancer therapy and/or radiotherapy sensitizers. The mechanisms of irradiation-induced alterations in DNA and RNA m6A methylation, and ways in which this understanding can be applied clinically, including utilization of methylation patterns as prognostic markers for cancer radiotherapy and their manipulation for anticancer therapy or use as radiotherapy sensitizers, have been further discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiotherapy; DNA methylation; RNA methylation; epigenetic regulation radiotherapy; DNA methylation; RNA methylation; epigenetic regulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Chi, H.-C.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Tsai, M.-M.; Lin, K.-H. Impact of DNA and RNA Methylation on Radiobiology and Cancer Progression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 555.

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