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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020493

Protective Effects of Olive Leaf Extract on Acrolein-Exacerbated Myocardial Infarction via an Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China
2
Department of Cardiology, Jiangsu Province Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 January 2018 / Revised: 27 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract

Many studies reported that air pollution particulate matter (PM) exposure was associated with myocardial infarction (MI). Acrolein representing the unsaturated aldehydes, the main component of PM, derives from the incomplete combustion of wood, plastic, fossil fuels and the main constitute of cigarette smoking. However, the effect of acrolein on MI remains not that clear. In the current study, the effect of acrolein-exacerbated MI was investigated. In vivo, male Sprague–Dawley rats received olive leaf extract (OLE) followed by acrolein, then isoprenaline (ISO) was received by subcutaneous injection to induce MI. Results showed that the expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP, two major components of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were higher in the combination of acrolein and ISO than those in ISO treatment. The apoptosis marker, Bax, was also higher while the anti-apoptosis indicator, Bcl2 expression was lower both at protein and mRNA levels in the combination group. Also, the acrolein-protein adducts and myocardial pathological damage increased in the combination of acrolein and ISO relative to the ISO treatment. Besides, cardiac parameters, ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) were reduced more significantly when acrolein was added than in ISO treatment. Interestingly, all the changes were able to be ameliorated by OLE. Since hydroxytyrosol (HT) and oleuropein (OP) were the main components in OLE, we next investigated the effect of HT and OP on cardiomyocyte H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by acrolein through ER stress and Bax pathway. Results showed that GRP78, CHOP and Bax expression were upregulated, while Bcl2 expression was downregulated both at the protein and mRNA levels, when the H9c2 cells were treated with acrolein. In addition, pretreatment with HT can reverse the expression of GRP78, CHOP, Bax and Bcl2 on the protein and mRNA levels, while there was no effect of OP on the expression of GRP78 and CHOP on the mRNA levels. Overall, all these results demonstrated that OLE and the main components (HT and OP) could prevent the negative effects of acrolein on myocardium and cardiomyocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: acrolein; apoptosis; olive leaf extract; hydroxytyrosol; oleuropein acrolein; apoptosis; olive leaf extract; hydroxytyrosol; oleuropein
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Xu, Y.; Wu, L.; Chen, A.; Xu, C.; Feng, Q. Protective Effects of Olive Leaf Extract on Acrolein-Exacerbated Myocardial Infarction via an Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 493.

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