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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020492

Plant Cation-Chloride Cotransporters (CCC): Evolutionary Origins and Functional Insights

ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, PMB1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
Present address: CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Waite Campus, Locked Bag 2 Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064, Australia.
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Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Membrane Transport)
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Abstract

Genomes of unicellular and multicellular green algae, mosses, grasses and dicots harbor genes encoding cation-chloride cotransporters (CCC). CCC proteins from the plant kingdom have been comparatively less well investigated than their animal counterparts, but proteins from both plants and animals have been shown to mediate ion fluxes, and are involved in regulation of osmotic processes. In this review, we show that CCC proteins from plants form two distinct phylogenetic clades (CCC1 and CCC2). Some lycophytes and bryophytes possess members from each clade, most land plants only have members of the CCC1 clade, and green algae possess only the CCC2 clade. It is currently unknown whether CCC1 and CCC2 proteins have similar or distinct functions, however they are both more closely related to animal KCC proteins compared to NKCCs. Existing heterologous expression systems that have been used to functionally characterize plant CCC proteins, namely yeast and Xenopus laevis oocytes, have limitations that are discussed. Studies from plants exposed to chemical inhibitors of animal CCC protein function are reviewed for their potential to discern CCC function in planta. Thus far, mutations in plant CCC genes have been evaluated only in two species of angiosperms, and such mutations cause a diverse array of phenotypes—seemingly more than could simply be explained by localized disruption of ion transport alone. We evaluate the putative roles of plant CCC proteins and suggest areas for future investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: KCC; NKCC; plant membrane transport; plant nutrition; anion; Golgi; plasma membrane; AT1G30450; Arabidopsis KCC; NKCC; plant membrane transport; plant nutrition; anion; Golgi; plasma membrane; AT1G30450; Arabidopsis
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Henderson, S.W.; Wege, S.; Gilliham, M. Plant Cation-Chloride Cotransporters (CCC): Evolutionary Origins and Functional Insights. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 492.

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