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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020484

Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Protects Against Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy-Induced Bone Marrow Damage in Female Rats

1
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, and UniSA Cancer Research Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
2
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
3
Institute for Resilient Regions, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, QLD 4300, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge)
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Abstract

Although bone marrow and bone toxicities have been reported in breast cancer survivors, preventative strategies are yet to be developed. Clinical studies suggest consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFA) can attenuate age-related bone loss, and recent animal studies also revealed benefits of LCn3PUFA in alleviating bone marrow and bone toxicities associated with methotrexate chemotherapy. Using a female rat model for one of the most commonly used anthracycline-containing breast cancer chemotherapy regimens (adriamycin + cyclophosphamide) (AC) chemotherapy, this study investigated potential effects of daily LCn3PUFA consumption in preserving bone marrow and bone microenvironment during chemotherapy. AC treatment for four cycles significantly reduced bone marrow cellularity and increased marrow adipocyte contents. It increased trabecular bone separation but no obvious changes in bone volume or bone cell densities. LCn3PUFA supplementation (375 mg/100 g/day) attenuated AC-induced bone marrow cell depletion and marrow adiposity. It also partially attenuated AC-induced increases in trabecular bone separation and the cell sizes and nuclear numbers of osteoclasts formed ex vivo from bone marrow cells isolated from AC-treated rats. This study suggests that LCn3PUFA supplementation may have beneficial effects in preventing bone marrow damage and partially protecting the bone during AC cancer chemotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer chemotherapy; anthracycline chemotherapy; bone marrow toxicity; marrow cellularity; marrow adiposity; bone damage; bone marrow damage; long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids breast cancer chemotherapy; anthracycline chemotherapy; bone marrow toxicity; marrow cellularity; marrow adiposity; bone damage; bone marrow damage; long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
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Fan, C.-M.; Su, Y.-W.; Howe, P.R.; Xian, C.J. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Protects Against Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy-Induced Bone Marrow Damage in Female Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 484.

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