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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010218

Update on the Impact of Omega 3 Fatty Acids on Inflammation, Insulin Resistance and Sarcopenia: A Review

Department of Medicine, Surgery, and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447, 34100 Trieste, Italy
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Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge)
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Abstract

Elderly and patients affected by chronic diseases face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function. Omega 3 fatty acids (FA) attenuate inflammation and age-associated muscle loss, prevent systemic insulin resistance and improve plasma lipids, potentially impacting on sarcopenia. This paper aims to review recent randomized clinical studies assessing the effects a chronic omega 3 FA supplementation on inflammatory and metabolic profile during conditions characterized by sarcopenia (aging, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, chronic renal failure). A comprehensive search of three online databases was performed to identify eligible trials published between 2012 and 2017. A total of 36 studies met inclusion criteria. Omega 3 FA yielded mixed results on plasma triglycerides in the elderly and no effects in renal patients. No changes in systemic insulin resistance were observed. Inflammation markers did not benefit from omega 3 FA in insulin resistant and in renal subjects while decreasing in obese and elderly. Muscle related parameters improved in elderly and in renal patients. In conclusion, in aging- and in chronic disease-associated sarcopenia omega 3 FA are promising independently of associated anabolic stimuli or of anti-inflammatory effects. The evidence for improved glucose metabolism in insulin resistant and in chronic inflammatory states is less solid. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega 3 fatty acids; sarcopenia; inflammation; aging; insulin resistance; chronic kidney disease omega 3 fatty acids; sarcopenia; inflammation; aging; insulin resistance; chronic kidney disease
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Buoite Stella, A.; Gortan Cappellari, G.; Barazzoni, R.; Zanetti, M. Update on the Impact of Omega 3 Fatty Acids on Inflammation, Insulin Resistance and Sarcopenia: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 218.

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