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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020463

The Study of Anti-/Pro-Oxidant, Lipophilic, Microbial and Spectroscopic Properties of New Alkali Metal Salts of 5-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid

1
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45E Str., 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
2
Faculty of Forestry, Bialystok University of Technology, Pilsudskiego 1A Str., 17-200 Hajnowka, Poland
3
Institute of Plant Protection—National Research Institute, Chelmonskiego 22 Str., 15-195 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 January 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 4 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium salts of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid, 5-CQA) were synthesized and described by FT-IR (infrared spectroscopy), FT-Raman (Raman spectroscopy), UV (UV absorption spectroscopy), 1H (400.15 MHz), 13C (100.63 MHz) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). The quantum–chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level were done in order to obtain the optimal structures, IR spectra, NBO (natural bond orbital) atomic charges, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) orbitals and chemical reactivity parameters for 5-CQA and Li, Na and K 5-CQAs (chlorogenates). The DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays were used for the preliminary estimation of the antioxidant properties of alkali metal chlorogenates and chlorogenic acid. In the DPPH assay the EC50 parameter were equal to 7.39 μM for 5-CQA and was in the range of 4.50–5.89 μM for salts. The FRAP values for two different concentrations (5 and 2.5 μM) of the studied compounds were respectively 114.22 and 72.53 μM Fe2+ for 5-CQA, whereas for salts they were 106.92–141.13 and 78.93–132.00 μM Fe2+. The 5-CQA and its alkali metal salts possess higher antioxidant properties than commonly applied antioxidants (BHA, BHT, l-ascorbic acid). The pro-oxidant action of these compounds on trolox oxidation was studied in the range of their concentration 0.05–0.35 μM. The lipophilicity (logkw) of chlorogenates and chlorogenic acid was determined by RP-HPLC (reverse phase—high performance liquid chromatography) using five different columns (C8, PHE (phenyl), CN (cyano), C18, IAM (immobilized artificial membrane)). The compounds were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against E. coli, Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus pyogenes and antifungal activity against Candida sp. The 5-CQA possessed lower antibacterial (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC = 7.06 mM) and antifungal (MIC = 14.11 mM) properties than its alkali metal salts (MIC values: 6.46–2.63 mM and 12.91–5.27mM, respectively). The synthesized chlorogenates possessed better antioxidant, lipophilic, antimicrobial as well as lower pro-oxidant properties than the ligand alone. Moreover, a systematic change of the activity of alkali metal salts along the series Li→Cs suggests that there are correlations between the studied biological properties. The type of metal cation in the carboxylate group of chlorogenate is crucial for the activity of studied compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorogenic acid; caffeoylquinic acid; spectroscopy; antioxidant; antimicrobial; lipophilicity chlorogenic acid; caffeoylquinic acid; spectroscopy; antioxidant; antimicrobial; lipophilicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kalinowska, M.; Bajko, E.; Matejczyk, M.; Kaczyński, P.; Łozowicka, B.; Lewandowski, W. The Study of Anti-/Pro-Oxidant, Lipophilic, Microbial and Spectroscopic Properties of New Alkali Metal Salts of 5-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 463.

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