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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 404; doi:10.3390/ijms19020404

Different Achilles Tendon Pathologies Show Distinct Histological and Molecular Characteristics

1
Julius Wolff Institute, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, 13353 Berlin, Germany
2
Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 13353 Berlin, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Basis of Musculoskeletal Regeneration)
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Abstract

Reasons for the development of chronic tendon pathologies are still under debate and more basic knowledge is needed about the different diseases. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize different acute and chronic Achilles tendon disorders. Achilles tendon samples from patients with chronic tendinopathy (n = 7), chronic ruptures (n = 6), acute ruptures (n = 13), and intact tendons (n = 4) were analyzed. The histological score investigating pathological changes was significantly increased in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to acute ruptures. Inflammatory infiltration was detected by immunohistochemistry in all tendon pathology groups, but was significantly lower in tendinopathy compared to chronic ruptures. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed significantly altered expression of genes related to collagens and matrix modeling/remodeling (matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases) in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to intact tendons and/or acute ruptures. In all three tendon pathology groups markers of inflammation (interleukin (IL) , tumor necrosis factor α, IL6, IL10, IL33, soluble ST2, transforming growth factor β1, cyclooxygenase 2), inflammatory cells (cluster of differentaition (CD) 3, CD68, CD80, CD206), fat metabolism (fatty acid binding protein 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, adiponectin), and innervation (protein gene product 9.5, growth associated protein 43, macrophage migration inhibitory factor) were detectable, but only in acute ruptures significantly regulated compared to intact tendons. The study gives an insight into structural and molecular changes of pathological processes in tendons and might be used to identify targets for future therapy of tendon pathologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic tendon pathologies; acute rupture; human; tendon structure; matrix; modeling/remodeling; inflammation; fat; innervation chronic tendon pathologies; acute rupture; human; tendon structure; matrix; modeling/remodeling; inflammation; fat; innervation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Klatte-Schulz, F.; Minkwitz, S.; Schmock, A.; Bormann, N.; Kurtoglu, A.; Tsitsilonis, S.; Manegold, S.; Wildemann, B. Different Achilles Tendon Pathologies Show Distinct Histological and Molecular Characteristics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 404.

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