Next Article in Journal
Compatibility with Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Alleviates the Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii via Modulating the Pharmacokinetics of Triptolide
Next Article in Special Issue
Scandoside Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect Via Suppressing NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages
Previous Article in Journal
Addition of Berberine to Preservation Solution in an Animal Model of Ex Vivo Liver Transplant Preserves Mitochondrial Function and Bioenergetics from the Damage Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion
Previous Article in Special Issue
Aeginetia indica Decoction Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 301; doi:10.3390/ijms19010301

B Type and Complex A/B Type Epicatechin Trimers Isolated from Litchi pericarp Aqueous Extract Show High Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity

1
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Postharvest Science of Fruits and Vegetables/College of Horticulture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
College of Life Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
3
Research Institute of Food Science and Engineering Technology, Hezhou University Hezhou 542899, China
4
Institute of Biomedicine, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Bioengineering Medicine, Biomedical Translational Research Institute, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2609 KB, uploaded 19 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit is known for its rich source of phenolics. Litchi pericarp contains high levels of epicatechin that may form oligomers of various lengths. Except for several A or B type epicatechin dimers, other soluble oligomers have rarely been identified in the pericarp. Here, bioassay-guided column fractionation was applied to isolate bioactive phenolics from aqueous pericarp extract. A fraction (S3) was obtained by two rounds of Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and showed higher antioxidant activity and inhibition on the proliferation of human lung cancer cells (A549) than Litchi anthocyanins. S3 was further separated to isolate fractions P1–P4, which all showed higher antioxidant activity than vitamin C. P3 showed 32.9% inhibition on A549 cells at 30 μg/mL, higher than other fractions and cis-Dichlorodiamineplatinum (DDP, 0.5 μg/mL), but not as high as the combination of the four fractions. Using HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, one B-type and complex A/B type epicatechin trimers were identified in P3; another B-type and two A/B-type trimers were identified in P4. P1 and P2, containing epicatechin and proanthocyanidin B2, respectively, showed no cell inhibition at 30 μg/mL. It is the first time that the two B type trimers of epicatechins (Litchitannin B1 and B2), have been found in Litchi species. The identified proanthocyanidins were detected in the pericarp of the young fruit, and the levels of the compounds decreased as the fruit developed, correlating to the decreasing patterns of the expression of LcLAR and LcANR, two key genes in the catechin biosynthesis pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: Litchi fruit; aqueous pericarp extract; B-type epicatechin trimers; A/B-type epicatechin trimers; anticancer activity Litchi fruit; aqueous pericarp extract; B-type epicatechin trimers; A/B-type epicatechin trimers; anticancer activity
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gong, Y.; Fang, F.; Zhang, X.; Liu, B.; Luo, H.; Li, Z.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Pang, X. B Type and Complex A/B Type Epicatechin Trimers Isolated from Litchi pericarp Aqueous Extract Show High Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 301.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top