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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 215; doi:10.3390/ijms19010215

Protein Activity of the Fusarium fujikuroi Rhodopsins CarO and OpsA and Their Relation to Fungus–Plant Interaction

1
Department of Biotechnology and Biophysics, Biocenter, Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany
2
Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of Seville, E-41012 Seville, Spain
3
Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Sl-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbe Interaction 2017)
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Abstract

Fungi possess diverse photosensory proteins that allow them to perceive different light wavelengths and to adapt to changing light conditions in their environment. The biological and physiological roles of the green light-sensing rhodopsins in fungi are not yet resolved. The rice plant pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi exhibits two different rhodopsins, CarO and OpsA. CarO was previously characterized as a light-driven proton pump. We further analyzed the pumping behavior of CarO by patch-clamp experiments. Our data show that CarO pumping activity is strongly augmented in the presence of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid and in sodium acetate, in a dose-dependent manner under slightly acidic conditions. By contrast, under these and other tested conditions, the Neurospora rhodopsin (NR)-like rhodopsin OpsA did not exhibit any pump activity. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) searches in the genomes of ascomycetes revealed the occurrence of rhodopsin-encoding genes mainly in phyto-associated or phytopathogenic fungi, suggesting a possible correlation of the presence of rhodopsins with fungal ecology. In accordance, rice plants infected with a CarO-deficient F. fujikuroi strain showed more severe bakanae symptoms than the reference strain, indicating a potential role of the CarO rhodopsin in the regulation of plant infection by this fungus. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal rhodopsins; CarO; OpsA; Fusarium fujikuroi; Oryza sativa; rice–plant infection; green light perception; indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); bakanae; patch-clamp fungal rhodopsins; CarO; OpsA; Fusarium fujikuroi; Oryza sativa; rice–plant infection; green light perception; indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); bakanae; patch-clamp
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Adam, A.; Deimel, S.; Pardo-Medina, J.; García-Martínez, J.; Konte, T.; Limón, M.C.; Avalos, J.; Terpitz, U. Protein Activity of the Fusarium fujikuroi Rhodopsins CarO and OpsA and Their Relation to Fungus–Plant Interaction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 215.

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