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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1945; doi:10.3390/ijms18091945

Sinomenine Hydrochloride Inhibits Human Glioblastoma Cell Growth through Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Autophagy-Lysosome Pathway Activation: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

Beijing Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Basic Research on Prevention and Treatment of Major Diseases, Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100000, China
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Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and it is one of the causes of cancer fatality in both adult and pediatric populations. Patients with glioblastoma require chemotherapy after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Therefore, chemotherapy constitutes a viable approach for the eradication of glioblastoma cells. In this study, the anti-tumor activity of sinomenine hydrochloride (SH) was evaluated in U87 and SF767 cells in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that SH potently inhibited U87 and SF767 cell viability and did not cause caspase-dependent cell death, as demonstrated by the absence of significant early apoptosis and caspase-3 cleavage. Instead, SH activated an autophagy-mediated cell death pathway, as indicated by the accumulated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B)-II, triggered autophagic flux and enhanced cell viability after pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors. SH-mediated autophagy in the two cell lines was implicated in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, protein kinase B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway suppression and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway activation. The ROS antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the Akt-specific activator insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 attenuated SH-induced autophagy. Moreover, ROS activated autophagy via the Akt-mTOR and JNK pathways. Additionally, SH treatment may promote lysosome biogenesis through activating transcription factor EB (TFEB). The in vivo study found that SH effectively suppressed glioblastoma growth without exhibiting significant toxicity. In conclusion, our findings reveal a novel mechanism of action of SH in cancer cells via the induction of autophagy through ROS generation and autophagy-lysosome pathway activation; these findings also supply a new potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of human glioblastoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; sinomenine hydrochloride; autophagy; reactive oxygen species; lysosome glioblastoma; sinomenine hydrochloride; autophagy; reactive oxygen species; lysosome
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jiang, Y.; Jiao, Y.; Wang, Z.; Li, T.; Liu, Y.; Li, Y.; Zhao, X.; Wang, D. Sinomenine Hydrochloride Inhibits Human Glioblastoma Cell Growth through Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Autophagy-Lysosome Pathway Activation: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1945.

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