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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1817; doi:10.3390/ijms18081817

Current Advances in Thyroid Cancer Management. Are We Ready for the Epidemic Rise of Diagnoses?

1
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute-Cancer Center, Gliwice Branch, Wybrzeze Armii Krajowej 15, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland
2
Tumor Pathology Department, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute-Cancer Center, Gliwice Branch, Wybrzeze Armii Krajowej 15, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland
3
3rd Department of Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy, Breast Unit, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute-Cancer Center, Gliwice Branch, Wybrzeze Armii Krajowej 15, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland
4
Department of Oncological and Reconstructive Surgery, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute-Cancer Center, Gliwice Branch, Wybrzeze Armii Krajowej 15, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Molecular Biology of Thyroid Disorders)
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Abstract

A rising incidence of thyroid cancers (TCs) mainly small tumors, observed during recent years, lead to many controversies regarding treatment strategies. TCs represent a distinct molecular background and clinical outcome. Although in most cases TCs are characterized by a good prognosis, there are some aggressive forms, which do not respond to standard treatment. There are still some questions, which have to be resolved to avoid dangerous simplifications in the clinical management. In this article, we focused on the current advantages in preoperative molecular diagnostic tests and histopathological examination including noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). We discussed the controversies regarding the extent of thyroid surgery and adjuvant radioiodine therapy, as well as new treatment modalities for radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC). Considering medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), we analyzed a clinical management based on histopathology and RET (ret proto-oncogene) mutation genotype, disease follow-up with a special attention to serum calcitonin doubling time as an important prognostic marker, and targeted therapy applied in advanced MTC. In addition, we provided some data regarding anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), a highly lethal neoplasm, which lead to death in nearly 100% of patients due to the lack of effective treatment options. View Full-Text
Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer; medullary thyroid cancer; anaplastic thyroid cancer; molecular diagnostics; thyroid surgery; RAI (radioiodine) ablation; multi kinase inhibitors differentiated thyroid cancer; medullary thyroid cancer; anaplastic thyroid cancer; molecular diagnostics; thyroid surgery; RAI (radioiodine) ablation; multi kinase inhibitors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rusinek, D.; Chmielik, E.; Krajewska, J.; Jarzab, M.; Oczko-Wojciechowska, M.; Czarniecka, A.; Jarzab, B. Current Advances in Thyroid Cancer Management. Are We Ready for the Epidemic Rise of Diagnoses? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1817.

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