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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1577; doi:10.3390/ijms18071577

The Alternaria alternata Mycotoxin Alternariol Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products)
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Abstract

The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) have been shown to possess genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. In this study, the ability of AOH and AME to modulate innate immunity in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) were investigated. During these studies, it was discovered that AOH and to a lesser extent AME potently suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with AOH resulted in morphological changes including a detached pattern of growth as well as elongated arms. AOH/AME-related immune suppression and morphological changes were linked to the ability of these mycotoxins to cause cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. This model was also used to investigate the AOH/AME mechanism of immune suppression in relation to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR was not found to be important for the immunosuppressive properties of AOH/AME, but appeared important for the low levels of cell death observed in BEAS-2B cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alternaria alternata; alternariol; innate immunity; immunosuppression Alternaria alternata; alternariol; innate immunity; immunosuppression
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Grover, S.; Lawrence, C.B. The Alternaria alternata Mycotoxin Alternariol Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1577.

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