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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1420; doi:10.3390/ijms18071420

Independent Preharvest Applications of Methyl Jasmonate and Chitosan Elicit Differential Upregulation of Defense-Related Genes with Reduced Incidence of Gray Mold Decay during Postharvest Storage of Fragaria chiloensis Fruit

1
Master Program in Forest Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Concepción, Concepción 4070386, Chile
2
Forest Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Concepción, Concepción 4070386, Chile
3
Phytohormone Research Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Talca, Talca 3465548, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 April 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ripening Control and Induction of the Defence and Antioxidant Systems)
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Abstract

The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) fruit has interesting organoleptic properties, but its postharvest life is affected by gray mold decay caused by Botrytis cinerea. The effect of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or chitosan on the molecular defense-related responses and protection against gray mold decay were investigated in Chilean strawberry fruit during postharvest storage. Specifically, we inoculated harvested fruit with B. cinerea spores and studied the expression of genes encoding for the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins β-1,3-glucanases (FcBG2-1, FcBG2-2 and FcBG2-3) and chitinases (FcCHI2-2 and FcCHI3-1), and for polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (FcPGIP1 and FcPGIP2) at 0, 2, 24, 48, and 72 h post inoculation (hpi). Remarkably, MeJA- and chitosan-treated fruit exhibited a lower incidence of B. cinerea infection than the control-treated at 48 and 72 hpi. At the molecular level, both are efficient elicitors for priming in F. chiloensis fruit since we observed an upregulation of the FcBG2-1, FcBG2-3, FcPGIP1, and FcPGIP2 at 0 hpi. Moreover, a chitosan-mediated upregulation of FcPGIPs at early times post inoculation (2–24 hpi) and MeJA upregulated FcBGs (24–72 hpi) and FcPGIP1 at later times could contribute to reduce B. cinerea incidence by differential upregulation of defense genes. We concluded that preharvest applications of MeJA or chitosan had a long-lasting effect on the reduction of B. cinerea incidence during postharvest as well as an enhancer effect on the induction of PR and PGIP gene expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: Botrytis cinerea; chitinases; β-1,3-glucanases; elicitors; polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins; priming; strawberry Botrytis cinerea; chitinases; β-1,3-glucanases; elicitors; polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins; priming; strawberry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Saavedra, G.M.; Sanfuentes, E.; Figueroa, P.M.; Figueroa, C.R. Independent Preharvest Applications of Methyl Jasmonate and Chitosan Elicit Differential Upregulation of Defense-Related Genes with Reduced Incidence of Gray Mold Decay during Postharvest Storage of Fragaria chiloensis Fruit. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1420.

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