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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1296; doi:10.3390/ijms18061296

Cutaneous Manifestations of Human and Murine Leishmaniasis

1
Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2
Instituto de Pesquisa Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Salvador, Bahia, 40296-710, Brazil
3
Federal University of Bahia, Hospital Universitário Prof. Edgard Santos, Salvador, BA, Brazil
4
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
5
Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
6
Veterans’ Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chris Jackson and Stephen A. Bustin
Received: 28 January 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Skin Conditions 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1978 KB, uploaded 19 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. The type of cutaneous pathology is determined in part by the infecting Leishmania species, but also by a combination of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host immune response factors resulting in different clinical outcomes. This review discusses the distinct cutaneous syndromes described in humans, and current knowledge of the inflammatory responses associated with divergent cutaneous pathologic responses to different Leishmania species. The contribution of key hematopoietic cells in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in mouse models are also reviewed and compared with those observed during human infection. We hypothesize that local skin events influence the ensuing adaptive immune response to Leishmania spp. infections, and that the balance between inflammatory and regulatory factors induced by infection are critical for determining cutaneous pathology and outcome of infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Leishmania; cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; diffuse leishmaniasis; disseminated leishmaniasis; DTH-delayed type hypersensitivity skin test; LST-Leishmania skin test; post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; kala-azar; skin immunology Leishmania; cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; diffuse leishmaniasis; disseminated leishmaniasis; DTH-delayed type hypersensitivity skin test; LST-Leishmania skin test; post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; kala-azar; skin immunology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Scorza, B.M.; Carvalho, E.M.; Wilson, M.E. Cutaneous Manifestations of Human and Murine Leishmaniasis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1296.

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