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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1212; doi:10.3390/ijms18061212

In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Cytoprotective, and Antimicrobial Properties of Essential Oil from Pistacia vera L. Variety Bronte Hull

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, , Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy
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Academic Editor: Toshio Morikawa
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products)
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Abstract

Although the chemical composition and biological properties of some species of the genus Pistacia has been investigated, studies on hull essential oil of Pistacia vera L. variety Bronte (HEO) are currently lacking. In this work, we have carried out an in-depth phytochemical profile elucidation by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and an evaluation of antioxidant scavenging properties of HEO, using several different in vitro methods, checking also its cytoprotective potential on lymphocytes treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, both American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical isolates, was also investigated. GC-MS analysis highlighted the richness of this complex matrix, with the identification of 40 derivatives. The major components identified were 4-Carene (31.743%), α-Pinene (23.584%), d-Limonene (8.002%), and 3-Carene (7.731%). The HEO showed a strong iron chelating activity and was found to be markedly active against hydroxyl radical, while scarce effects were found against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Moreover, pre-treatment with HEO was observed to significantly increase the cell viability, decreasing the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. HEO was bactericidal against all the tested strains at the concentration of 7.11 mg/mL, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The obtained results demonstrate the strong free-radical scavenging activity of HEO along with remarkable cytoprotective and antimicrobial properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pistacia vera L. variety Bronte; essential oil; antioxidant; cytoprotective activity; antimicrobial activity Pistacia vera L. variety Bronte; essential oil; antioxidant; cytoprotective activity; antimicrobial activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smeriglio, A.; Denaro, M.; Barreca, D.; Calderaro, A.; Bisignano, C.; Ginestra, G.; Bellocco, E.; Trombetta, D. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Cytoprotective, and Antimicrobial Properties of Essential Oil from Pistacia vera L. Variety Bronte Hull. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1212.

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