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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1193; doi:10.3390/ijms18061193

Resveratrol, 4′ Acetoxy Resveratrol, R-equol, Racemic Equol or S-equol as Cosmeceuticals to Improve Dermal Health

Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology and The Neuroscience Center, LS 4005, College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
Academic Editor: Woo-Sik Jeong
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Phytochemicals for Skin Health)
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Abstract

Phytochemicals are botanical compounds used in dermatology applications as cosmeceuticals to improve skin health. Resveratrol and equol are two of the best-known polyphenolic or phytoestrogens having similar chemical structures and some overlapping biological functions to 17β-estradiol. Human skin gene expression was reviewed for 28 different biomarkers when resveratrol, 4′ acetoxy resveratrol (4AR), R-equol, racemic equol or S-equol were tested. Sirtuin 1 activator (SIRT 1) was stimulated by resveratrol and 4AR only. Resveratrol, R-equol and racemic equol were effective on the aging biomarkers proliferating cell nuclear factor (PCNA), nerve growth factor (NGF), 5α-reductase and the calcium binding proteins S100 A8 and A9. Racemic equol and 4AR displayed among the highest levels for the collagens, elastin and tissue inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP 1). S-equol displayed the lowest level of effectiveness compared to the other compounds. The 4AR analog was more effective compared to resveratrol by 1.6-fold. R-equol and racemic equol were almost equal in potency displaying greater inhibition vs. resveratrol or its 4′ analog for the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), but among the inflammatory biomarkers, resveratrol, 4AR, R-equol and racemic equol displayed high inhibition. Thus, these cosmeceuticals display promise to improve dermal health; however, further study is warranted to understand how phytochemicals protect/enhance the skin. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytochemicals; resveratrol; equol; human skin; gene array; extracellular matrix proteins; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory phytochemicals; resveratrol; equol; human skin; gene array; extracellular matrix proteins; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lephart, E.D. Resveratrol, 4′ Acetoxy Resveratrol, R-equol, Racemic Equol or S-equol as Cosmeceuticals to Improve Dermal Health. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1193.

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