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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1155; doi:10.3390/ijms18061155

De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and the Hypothetical Cold Response Mode of Saussurea involucrata in Extreme Cold Environments

1
College of Life Sciences, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China
2
Department of Regenerative Medicine, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200065, China
3
ShengTing Bioinformatics Institute, Christiansburg, VA 24073, USA
4
College of Life Sciences, Perking University, Beijing 100871, China
5
Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lam-Son Phan Tran
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Botany)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2223 KB, uploaded 7 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Saussurea involucrata grows in high mountain areas covered by snow throughout the year. The temperature of this habitat can change drastically in one day. To gain a better understanding of the cold response signaling pathways and molecular metabolic reactions involved in cold stress tolerance, genome-wide transcriptional analyses were performed using RNA-Seq technologies. A total of 199,758 transcripts were assembled, producing 138,540 unigenes with 46.8 Gb clean data. Overall, 184,416 (92.32%) transcripts were successfully annotated. The 365 transcription factors identified (292 unigenes) belonged to 49 transcription factor families associated with cold stress responses. A total of 343 transcripts on the signal transduction (132 upregulated and 212 downregulated in at least any one of the conditions) were strongly affected by cold temperature, such as the CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase (CIPKs), receptor-like protein kinases, and protein kinases. The circadian rhythm pathway was activated by cold adaptation, which was necessary to endure the severe temperature changes within a day. There were 346 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to transport, of which 138 were upregulated and 22 were downregulated in at least any one of the conditions. Under cold stress conditions, transcriptional regulation, molecular transport, and signal transduction were involved in the adaptation to low temperature in S. involucrata. These findings contribute to our understanding of the adaptation of plants to harsh environments and the survival traits of S. involucrata. In addition, the present study provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of chilling and freezing tolerance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Saussurea involucrata; RNA-Seq; transcriptome; signal transduction; transcription factor; free radical Saussurea involucrata; RNA-Seq; transcriptome; signal transduction; transcription factor; free radical
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Li, J.; Liu, H.; Xia, W.; Mu, J.; Feng, Y.; Liu, R.; Yan, P.; Wang, A.; Lin, Z.; Guo, Y.; Zhu, J.; Chen, X. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and the Hypothetical Cold Response Mode of Saussurea involucrata in Extreme Cold Environments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1155.

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