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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1151; doi:10.3390/ijms18061151

Sensitivity of HOXB13 as a Diagnostic Immunohistochemical Marker of Prostatic Origin in Prostate Cancer Metastases: Comparison to PSA, Prostein, Androgen Receptor, ERG, NKX3.1, PSAP, and PSMA

1
Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany
2
Department of Urology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
3
Berlin Institute of Urologic Research, Berlin, Germany
4
Institute of Pathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 16 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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Abstract

Aims: Determining the origin of metastases is an important task of pathologists to allow for the initiation of a tumor-specific therapy. Recently, homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) has been suggested as a new marker for the detection of prostatic origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of HOXB13 in comparison to commonly used immunohistochemical markers for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Histologically confirmed prostate cancer lymph node metastases from 64 cases were used to test the diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers: prostate specific antigen (PSA), Prostatic acid phosphatase (PSAP), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), homeobox gene NKX3.1, prostein, androgen receptor (AR), HOXB13, and ETS-related gene (ERG). All markers were evaluated semi-quantitatively using Remmele's immune reactive score. Results: The detection rate of prostate origin of metastasis for single markers was 100% for NKX3.1, 98.1% for AR, 84.3% for PSMA, 80.8% for PSA, 66% for PSAP, 60.4% for HOXB13, 59.6% for prostein, and 50.0% for ERG. Conclusions: Our data suggest that HOXB13 on its own lacks sensitivity for the detection of prostatic origin. Therefore, this marker should be only used in conjunction with other markers, preferably the highly specific PSA. The combination of PSA with NKX3.1 shows a higher sensitivity and thus appears preferable in this setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; metastasis; immunohistochemistry; detection; PSA; PSAP; PSMA; NKX3.1; prostein; HOXB13; ERG; AR prostate cancer; metastasis; immunohistochemistry; detection; PSA; PSAP; PSMA; NKX3.1; prostein; HOXB13; ERG; AR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kristiansen, I.; Stephan, C.; Jung, K.; Dietel, M.; Rieger, A.; Tolkach, Y.; Kristiansen, G. Sensitivity of HOXB13 as a Diagnostic Immunohistochemical Marker of Prostatic Origin in Prostate Cancer Metastases: Comparison to PSA, Prostein, Androgen Receptor, ERG, NKX3.1, PSAP, and PSMA. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1151.

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