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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1128; doi:10.3390/ijms18061128

Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Polymorphisms and Nitric Oxide Levels in Individuals with Chronic Periodontitis

1
Department of Morphology, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Humaita St., 1680, Araraquara CEP 14801-903, São Paulo, Brazil
2
Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Humaita St., 1680, Araraquara CEP 14801-903, São Paulo, Brazil
3
Department of Periodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 240 S 40th St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
4
Department of Implantology, University of Santo Amaro, Professor Enéas de Siqueira Neto, St., 340, Santo Amaro CEP 04829-300, São Paulo, Brazil
5
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Campinas—UNICAMP, Tessália Vieira de Camargo St., 126 Campinas CEP 13083-887, São Paulo, Brazil
6
Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Bandeirantes Avenue, 3900, Ribeirão Preto CEP 14.049-900, São Paulo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irmgard Tegeder
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 20 May 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [257 KB, uploaded 15 June 2017]

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate whether the −1026(A>C)(rs2779249) and +2087(A>G)(2297518) polymorphisms in the NOS2 gene were associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) and with salivary levels of nitrite (NO2) and/or nitrate + nitrite (NOx). A group of 113 mixed-race patients were subjected to periodontal, genetic, and biochemical evaluations (65 CP/48 periodontally healthy subjects). DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells and used for genotyping by polymerase chain reaction (real-time). Salivary NOx concentrations were determined using an ozone-based chemiluminescence assay. Association of CP with alleles and genotypes of the −1026(A>C) polymorphism was found (X2 test, p = 0.0075; 0.0308), but this was not maintained after multiple logistic regression, performed to estimate the effect of covariates and polymorphisms in CP. This analysis demonstrated, after correction for multiple comparisons, that only the female gender was significantly associated with CP. Polymorphisms analyzed as haplotypes were not associated with CP. NOx levels were significantly higher in the control group of heterozygous individuals for both polymorphisms. In conclusion, the female gender was significantly associated with CP, and higher levels of salivary NOx were found in control subjects and associated with the heterozygous state of the NOS2 polymorphisms, reinforcing the potential of NO metabolites as markers of periodontitis status. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic polymorphism; chronic periodontitis; nitric oxide; inducible nitric oxide synthase genetic polymorphism; chronic periodontitis; nitric oxide; inducible nitric oxide synthase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Scarel-Caminaga, R.M.; Cera, F.F.; Pigossi, S.C.; Finoti, L.S.; Kim, Y.J.; Viana, A.C.; Secolin, R.; Montenegro, M.F.; Tanus-Santos, J.E.; Orrico, S.R.P.; Cirelli, J.A. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Polymorphisms and Nitric Oxide Levels in Individuals with Chronic Periodontitis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1128.

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