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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1114; doi:10.3390/ijms18061114

Mass Spectrometry Based Profiling and Imaging of Various Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng Roots at Different Ages

1
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration (RDA), Eumseong 27709, Korea
2
Department of Oriental Medicinal Materials and Processing, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marcello Iriti and Ute Roessner
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in the Plant Sciences 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2055 KB, uploaded 24 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

(1) Background: Panax ginseng root is one of the most important herbal products, and the profiling of ginsenosides is critical for the quality control of ginseng roots at different ages in the herbal markets. Furthermore, interest in assessing the contents as well as the localization of biological compounds has been growing. The objective of this study is to carry out the mass spectrometry (MS)-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides to assess ginseng roots at different ages; (2) Methods: Optimal ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight/MS (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was used to profile various ginsenosides from P. ginseng roots. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)/MS-based imaging was also optimized to visualize ginsenosides in ginseng roots; (3) Results: UPLC-QTOF/MS was used to profile 30 ginsenosides with high mass accuracy, with an in-house library constructed for the fast and exact identification of ginsenosides. Using this method, the levels of 14 ginsenosides were assessed in P. ginseng roots cultivated for 4, 5, and 6 years. The optimal MALDI-imaging MS (IMS) was also applied to visualize the 14 ginsenosides in ginseng roots. As a result, the MSI cross sections showed the localization of 4 ginsenoside ions ([M + K]+) in P. ginseng roots at different ages; (4) Conclusions: The contents and localization of various ginsenosides differ depending on the cultivation years of P. ginseng roots. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the utility of MS-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides for the quality control of ginseng roots. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginsenosides; Panax ginseng; profiling; imaging; UPLC-QTOF/MS; MALDI ginsenosides; Panax ginseng; profiling; imaging; UPLC-QTOF/MS; MALDI
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.W.; Ji, S.-H.; Lee, Y.-S.; Choi, D.J.; Choi, B.-R.; Kim, G.-S.; Baek, N.-I.; Lee, D.Y. Mass Spectrometry Based Profiling and Imaging of Various Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng Roots at Different Ages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1114.

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