Next Article in Journal
Mass Spectrometry Based Profiling and Imaging of Various Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng Roots at Different Ages
Next Article in Special Issue
Mammalian Metallothionein-3: New Functional and Structural Insights
Previous Article in Journal
Marker-Assisted Molecular Profiling, Deletion Mutant Analysis, and RNA-Seq Reveal a Disease Resistance Cluster Associated with Uromyces appendiculatus Infection in Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Previous Article in Special Issue
Residue Modification and Mass Spectrometry for the Investigation of Structural and Metalation Properties of Metallothionein and Cysteine-Rich Proteins
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1113; doi:10.3390/ijms18061113

Regulatory Plasticity of Earthworm wMT-2 Gene Expression

1
Institute of Zoology, Center for Molecular Biosciences, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Division of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eva Freisinger
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 21 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallothioneins in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Recent Developments)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2158 KB, uploaded 24 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Metallothioneins (MTs) are multifunctional proteins occurring throughout the animal kingdom. While the expression and transcriptional regulation of MTs is well-studied in vertebrates, the mechanism of MT activation is still unknown for most invertebrates. Therefore, we examined wMT-2 gene regulation and expression patterns in Lumbricus rubellus and L. terrestris. Transcription levels, the occupation of DNA binding sites, the expression of putative transcriptional regulators, and promotor DNA methylation were determined. We found that wMT-2 expression does not follow a circadian pattern. However, Cd-induced wMT-2 induction was observed, and was, interestingly, suppressed by physical injury. Moreover, the promotor region that is responsible for the wMT-2 gene regulation was elucidated. ATF, a putative transcriptional regulator, showed increased phosphorylation upon Cd exposure, suggesting that it plays a major role in wMT-2 gene activation. The promotor methylation of wMT-2, on the other hand, is probably not involved in transcriptional regulation. Elucidating the regulatory mechanism of the earthworm MT gene activation might provide insights into the molecular coordination of the environmental stress response in invertebrates, and might also reveal a link to wound repair and, in a broader sense, to immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: metallothionein; earthworm; cadmium; gene regulation; bisulfite conversion; DNA methylation; CREB; ATF; DNase I footprinting; tissue repair metallothionein; earthworm; cadmium; gene regulation; bisulfite conversion; DNA methylation; CREB; ATF; DNase I footprinting; tissue repair
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Drechsel, V.; Schauer, K.; Šrut, M.; Höckner, M. Regulatory Plasticity of Earthworm wMT-2 Gene Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1113.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top