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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1019; doi:10.3390/ijms18051019

Growth Hormone Resistance—Special Focus on Inflammatory Bowel Disease

1
Novo Nordisk A/S, Global Research, Maaloev 2760, Denmark
2
Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
3
Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
4
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Steve Harvey and Carlos G. Martinez-Moreno
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth Hormone: Therapeutic Possibilities)
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Abstract

Growth hormone (GH) plays major anabolic and catabolic roles in the body and is important for regulating several aspects of growth. During an inflammatory process, cells may develop a state of GH resistance during which their response to GH stimulation is limited. In this review, we will emphasize specific mechanisms governing the formation of GH resistance in the active phase of inflammatory bowel disease. The specific molecular effects mediated through individual inflammatory mediators and processes will be highlighted to provide an overview of the transcriptional, translational and post-translational inflammation-mediated impacts on the GH receptor (GHR) along with the impacts on GH-induced intracellular signaling. We also will review GH’s effects on mucosal healing and immune cells in the context of experimental colitis, human inflammatory bowel disease and in patients with short bowel syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: growth hormone; IL-1β; IL-6; inflammation; inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); intestine; resistance; STAT5; TNF-α growth hormone; IL-1β; IL-6; inflammation; inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); intestine; resistance; STAT5; TNF-α
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Soendergaard, C.; Young, J.A.; Kopchick, J.J. Growth Hormone Resistance—Special Focus on Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1019.

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