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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 823; doi:10.3390/ijms18040823

Behavior of Human Osteoblast Cells Cultured on Titanium Discs in Relation to Surface Roughness and Presence of Melatonin

1
Department of Stomatology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Pathology and Health Research Institute of the Hospital Clínico (INCLIVA), Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Russel J. Reiter
Received: 5 March 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
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Abstract

The aim of this work was to observe the behavior of osteoblast cells cultured in vitro on titanium discs in relation to disc surface roughness and the addition of melatonin to the culture medium. MG63 osteoblast cells were cultivated on 120 Grade 5 Ti divided into three groups: Group E, treated with dual acid etch; Group EP, treated with dual acid etch and calcium phosphate; and Group M, machined. Surface roughness was examined under a laser scanning confocal microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proliferation and morphology of cells were determined under fluorescence microscopy and SEM. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of different genes related to osteoblastic differentiation was quantified by means of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The greatest surface roughness was found in Group EP (Ra 0.354 µm), followed by Group E (Ra 0.266 µm), and Group M (Ra 0.131 µm), with statistically significant differences between the groups (p < 0.001). In the presence of melatonin a trend to a higher cell proliferation was observed in all groups although significant differences were only found in Group M (p = 0.0079). Among the genes studied, a significant increase in phosphate-regulating neutral endopeptidase, X-linked (PHEX) expression was observed in cells cultured on EP discs. The addition of melatonin increased osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation, and may favor the osseointegration of dental implants. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoblasts; titanium; roughness; melatonin; proliferation; differentiation; mRNA; PHEX; dental implants osteoblasts; titanium; roughness; melatonin; proliferation; differentiation; mRNA; PHEX; dental implants
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sola-Ruiz, M.F.; Perez-Martinez, C.; Labaig-Rueda, C.; Carda, C.; Martín De Llano, J.J. Behavior of Human Osteoblast Cells Cultured on Titanium Discs in Relation to Surface Roughness and Presence of Melatonin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 823.

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