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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 794; doi:10.3390/ijms18040794

Ginkgolide A Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses In Vitro and In Vivo

1
Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
2
National Engineering Laboratory for Druggable Gene and Protein Screening, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paula Andrade and Patrícia Valentão
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Abstract

Ginkgolide A (GA) is a natural compound isolated from Ginkgo biloba and has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetic vascular complications. However, only a few studies have been conducted on the anti-inflammatory effects of GA. In particular, no related reports have been published in a common inflammation model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of GA have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we extensively investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of GA in vitro and in vivo. We showed that GA could suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β) in LPS-treated mouse peritoneal macrophages, mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, and differentiated human monocytes (dTHP-1) in vitro. These effects were partially carried out via downregulating Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway also seems to be important. Consistently, GA was also shown to inhibit the LPS-stimulated release of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that GA can serve as an effective inflammatory inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ginkgolide A; inflammation; AMPK; NF-κB; MAPKs Ginkgolide A; inflammation; AMPK; NF-κB; MAPKs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Wu, Y.; Yao, X.; Hao, F.; Yu, C.; Bao, Y.; Wu, Y.; Song, Z.; Sun, Y.; Zheng, L.; Wang, G.; Huang, Y.; Sun, L.; Li, Y. Ginkgolide A Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses In Vitro and In Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 794.

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