Ginkgolide A Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses In Vitro and In Vivo
AbstractGinkgolide A (GA) is a natural compound isolated from Ginkgo biloba and has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetic vascular complications. However, only a few studies have been conducted on the anti-inflammatory effects of GA. In particular, no related reports have been published in a common inflammation model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of GA have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we extensively investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of GA in vitro and in vivo. We showed that GA could suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β) in LPS-treated mouse peritoneal macrophages, mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, and differentiated human monocytes (dTHP-1) in vitro. These effects were partially carried out via downregulating Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway also seems to be important. Consistently, GA was also shown to inhibit the LPS-stimulated release of TNF-α and IL-6 in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that GA can serve as an effective inflammatory inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. View Full-Text
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Li, Y.; Wu, Y.; Yao, X.; Hao, F.; Yu, C.; Bao, Y.; Wu, Y.; Song, Z.; Sun, Y.; Zheng, L.; Wang, G.; Huang, Y.; Sun, L.; Li, Y. Ginkgolide A Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses In Vitro and In Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 794.
Li Y, Wu Y, Yao X, Hao F, Yu C, Bao Y, Wu Y, Song Z, Sun Y, Zheng L, Wang G, Huang Y, Sun L, Li Y. Ginkgolide A Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses In Vitro and In Vivo. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(4):794.Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Yan; Wu, Yannan; Yao, Xinlei; Hao, Fang; Yu, Chunlei; Bao, Yongli; Wu, Yin; Song, Zhenbo; Sun, Ying; Zheng, Lihua; Wang, Guannan; Huang, Yanxin; Sun, Luguo; Li, Yuxin. 2017. "Ginkgolide A Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses In Vitro and In Vivo." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 4: 794.