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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 679; doi:10.3390/ijms18030679

Methodological Challenges in Protein Microarray and Immunohistochemistry for the Discovery of Novel Autoantibodies in Paediatric Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

1
Clinical Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria
2
Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna A-1090, Austria
3
Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria
4
Division of Paediatric Neurology, Department of Paediatrics I, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck A-6020, Austria
5
Department of Paediatric Neurology, Witten/Herdecke University, Children’s Hospital Datteln, Datteln D-45711, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1496 KB, uploaded 22 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune-mediated demyelinating disease affecting mainly children and young adults. Differentiation to multiple sclerosis is not always possible, due to overlapping clinical symptoms and recurrent and multiphasic forms. Until now, immunoglobulins reactive to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG antibodies) have been found in a subset of patients with ADEM. However, there are still patients lacking autoantibodies, necessitating the identification of new autoantibodies as biomarkers in those patients. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel autoantibody targets in ADEM patients. Sixteen ADEM patients (11 seronegative, 5 seropositive for MOG antibodies) were analysed for potential new biomarkers, using a protein microarray and immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue to identify antibodies against intracellular and surface neuronal and glial antigens. Nine candidate antigens were identified in the protein microarray analysis in at least two patients per group. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain tissue did not reveal new target antigens. Although no new autoantibody targets could be found here, future studies should aim to identify new biomarkers for therapeutic and prognostic purposes. The microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry methods used here have several limitations, which should be considered in future searches for biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; paediatric; autoantibody; autoantigen; protein microarray; immunohistochemistry acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; paediatric; autoantibody; autoantigen; protein microarray; immunohistochemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peschl, P.; Ramberger, M.; Höftberger, R.; Jöhrer, K.; Baumann, M.; Rostásy, K.; Reindl, M. Methodological Challenges in Protein Microarray and Immunohistochemistry for the Discovery of Novel Autoantibodies in Paediatric Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 679.

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