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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 472; doi:10.3390/ijms18020472

The Importance of Endophenotypes to Evaluate the Relationship between Genotype and External Phenotype

1
Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen UR Livestock Research, 6700AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Animal Breeding and Genomics, Wageningen University, 6700AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Klaus Wimmers
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Genotype–Phenotype Map to Explain Complex Traits)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1064 KB, uploaded 22 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

With the exception of a few Mendelian traits, almost all phenotypes (traits) in livestock science are quantitative or complex traits regulated by the expression of many genes. For most of the complex traits, differential expression of genes, rather than genomic variation in the gene coding sequences, is associated with the genotype of a trait. The expression profiles of the animal’s transcriptome, proteome and metabolome represent endophenotypes that influence/regulate the externally-observed phenotype. These expression profiles are generated by interactions between the animal’s genome and its environment that range from the cellular, up to the husbandry environment. Thus, understanding complex traits requires knowledge about not only genomic variation, but also environmental effects that affect genome expression. Gene products act together in physiological pathways and interaction networks (of pathways). Due to the lack of annotation of the functional genome and ontologies of genes, our knowledge about the various biological systems that contribute to the development of external phenotypes is sparse. Furthermore, interaction with the animals’ microbiome, especially in the gut, greatly influences the external phenotype. We conclude that a detailed understanding of complex traits requires not only understanding of variation in the genome, but also its expression at all functional levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: livestock science; genomic variation and environment; methylome; transcriptome; proteome; metabolome; phenome; integration; bioinformatics; systems biology livestock science; genomic variation and environment; methylome; transcriptome; proteome; metabolome; phenome; integration; bioinformatics; systems biology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

te Pas, M.F.W.; Madsen, O.; Calus, M.P.L.; Smits, M.A. The Importance of Endophenotypes to Evaluate the Relationship between Genotype and External Phenotype. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 472.

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