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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 464; doi:10.3390/ijms18020464

The Adverse Effects of Triptolide on the Reproductive System of Caenorhabditis elegans: Oogenesis Impairment and Decreased Oocyte Quality

1
Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China
2
Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China
3
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for High Technology Research of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Céline Audet
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Previous studies have revealed that Triptolide damages female reproductive capacity, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the effects of Triptolide on the germline and explore its possible mechanisms. Our data show that exposure for 4 h to 50 and 100 mg/L Triptolide reduced C. elegans fertility, led to depletion and inactivation of spermatids with the changes in the expression levels of related genes, and increased the number of unfertilized oocytes through damaging chromosomes and DNA damage repair mechanisms. After 24 and 48 h of the 4 h exposure to 50 and 100 mg/L Triptolide, we observed shrink in distal tip cells, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, a decrease in the number of mitotic germ cells and oocytes in diakinesis stage, and chromatin aggregates in −1 oocytes. Moreover, expression patterns of the genes associated with mitotic germ cell proliferation, apoptosis, and oocyte quality were altered after Triptolide exposure. Therefore, Triptolide may damage fertility of nematodes by hampering the development of oocytes at different developmental stages. Alterations in the expression patterns of genes involved in oocyte development may explain the corresponding changes in oocyte development in nematodes exposed to Triptolide. View Full-Text
Keywords: Caenorhabditis elegans; Triptolide; oogenesis; mitosis; apoptosis Caenorhabditis elegans; Triptolide; oogenesis; mitosis; apoptosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ruan, Q.; Xu, Y.; Xu, R.; Wang, J.; Hua, Y.; Wang, M.; Duan, J. The Adverse Effects of Triptolide on the Reproductive System of Caenorhabditis elegans: Oogenesis Impairment and Decreased Oocyte Quality. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 464.

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