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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 466; doi:10.3390/ijms18020466

The Temporal Pattern, Flux, and Function of Autophagy in Spinal Cord Injury

1
Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, China
2
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
3
Department of Orthopaedics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
4
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
5
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
6
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irmgard Tegeder
Received: 25 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2107 KB, uploaded 23 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Previous studies have indicated that autophagy plays a critical role in spinal cord injury (SCI), including traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) and ischemia-reperfusion spinal cord injury (IRSCI). However, while the understanding of mechanisms underlying autophagy in SCI has progressed, there remain several controversial points: (1) temporal pattern results of autophagic activation after SCI are not consistent across studies; (2) effect of accumulation of autophagosomes due to the blockade or enhancement of autophagic flux is uncertain; (3) overall effect of enhanced autophagy remains undefined, with both beneficial and detrimental outcomes reported in SCI literature. In this review, the temporal pattern of autophagic activation, autophagic flux, autophagic cell death, relationship between autophagy and apoptosis, and pharmacological intervention of autophagy in TSCI (contusion injury, compression injury and hemisection injury) and IRSCI are discussed. Types of SCI and severity appear to contribute to differences in outcomes regarding temporal pattern, flux, and function of autophagy. With future development of specific strategies on autophagy intervention, autophagy may play an important role in improving functional recovery in patients with SCI. View Full-Text
Keywords: temporal pattern; flux; function; autophagy; traumatic spinal cord injury; ischemia-reperfusion spinal cord injury temporal pattern; flux; function; autophagy; traumatic spinal cord injury; ischemia-reperfusion spinal cord injury
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Zhou, K.; Sansur, C.A.; Xu, H.; Jia, X. The Temporal Pattern, Flux, and Function of Autophagy in Spinal Cord Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 466.

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