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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 421; doi:10.3390/ijms18020421

Methylglyoxal-Derived Advanced Glycation Endproducts in Multiple Sclerosis

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, 6229 Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
Department of Immunology and Biochemistry, Biomedical Research Institute, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christoph Kleinschnitz
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glyoxalase System)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [831 KB, uploaded 16 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The activation of inflammatory cells is crucial for the development of MS and is shown to induce intracellular glycolytic metabolism in pro-inflammatory microglia and macrophages, as well as CNS-resident astrocytes. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are stable endproducts formed by a reaction of the dicarbonyl compounds methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO) with amino acids in proteins, during glycolysis. This suggests that, in MS, MGO-derived AGEs are formed in glycolysis-driven cells. MGO and MGO-derived AGEs can further activate inflammatory cells by binding to the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE). Recent studies have revealed that AGEs are increased in the plasma and brain of MS patients. Therefore, AGEs might contribute to the inflammatory status in MS. Moreover, the main detoxification system of dicarbonyl compounds, the glyoxalase system, seems to be affected in MS patients, which may contribute to high MGO-derived AGE levels. Altogether, evidence is emerging for a contributing role of AGEs in the pathology of MS. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the involvement of AGEs in MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; methylglyoxal; advanced glycation endproducts; glyoxalase system; receptor for advanced glycation endproduct multiple sclerosis; methylglyoxal; advanced glycation endproducts; glyoxalase system; receptor for advanced glycation endproduct
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Wetzels, S.; Wouters, K.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Vanmierlo, T.; Hendriks, J.J.A. Methylglyoxal-Derived Advanced Glycation Endproducts in Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 421.

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