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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 392; doi:10.3390/ijms18020392

Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Shells Extract: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Effect and Cytotoxic Activity on Human Cancer Cell Lines

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, I-84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
2
Ph.D. Program in Drug Discovery and Development, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Toshio Morikawa
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products)
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Abstract

Hazelnut shells, a by-product of the kernel industry processing, are reported to contain high amount of polyphenols. However, studies on the chemical composition and potential effects on human health are lacking. A methanol hazelnut shells extract was prepared and dried. Our investigation allowed the isolation and characterization of different classes of phenolic compounds, including neolignans, and a diarylheptanoid, which contribute to a high total polyphenol content (193.8 ± 3.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract). Neolignans, lawsonicin and cedrusin, a cyclic diarylheptanoid, carpinontriol B, and two phenol derivatives, C-veratroylglycol, and β-hydroxypropiovanillone, were the main components of the extract (0.71%–2.93%, w/w). The biological assays suggested that the extract could be useful as a functional ingredient in food technology and pharmaceutical industry showing an in vitro scavenging activity against the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) (EC50 = 31.7 μg/mL with respect to α-tocopherol EC50 = 10.1 μg/mL), and an inhibitory effect on the growth of human cancer cell lines A375, SK-Mel-28 and HeLa (IC50 = 584, 459, and 526 μg/mL, respectively). The expression of cleaved forms of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) suggested that the extract induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in both human malignant melanoma (SK-Mel-28) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. The cytotoxic activity relies on the presence of the neolignans (balanophonin), and phenol derivatives (gallic acid), showing a pro-apoptotic effect on the tested cell lines, and the neolignan, cedrusin, with a cytotoxic effect on A375 and HeLa cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: hazelnut by-product; neolignans; diaryleptanoid; DPPH radical; caspase-3; PARP-1 hazelnut by-product; neolignans; diaryleptanoid; DPPH radical; caspase-3; PARP-1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Esposito, T.; Sansone, F.; Franceschelli, S.; Del Gaudio, P.; Picerno, P.; Aquino, R.P.; Mencherini, T. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Shells Extract: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Effect and Cytotoxic Activity on Human Cancer Cell Lines. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 392.

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