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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 294; doi:10.3390/ijms18020294

Metabolomic Biomarkers in Urine of Cushing’s Syndrome Patients

1
Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Gdańsk, Al. Gen. J. Hallera 107, 80-416 Gdańsk, Poland
2
Laboratory of Environmental Chemometrics, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
3
Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, ul. Dębinki 7, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland
4
Department ofEnvironmental Analytics,Institute for Environmental and Human Health Protection, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting-Li (Morgan) Han
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2310 KB, uploaded 13 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a disease which results from excessive levels of cortisol in the human body. The disorder is associated with various signs and symptoms which are also common for the general population not suffering from compound hypersecretion. Thus, more sensitive and selective methods are required for the diagnosis of CS. This follow-up study was conducted to determine which steroid metabolites could serve as potential indicators of CS and possible subclinical hypercortisolism in patients diagnosed with so called non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas (AIs). Urine samples from negative controls (n = 37), patients with CS characterized by hypercortisolism and excluding iatrogenic CS (n = 16), and patients with non-functioning AIs with possible subclinical Cushing’s syndrome (n = 25) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Statistical and multivariate methods were applied to investigate the profile differences between examined individuals. The analyses revealed hormonal differences between patients with CS and the rest of examined individuals. The concentrations of selected metabolites of cortisol, androgens, and pregnenetriol were elevated whereas the levels of tetrahydrocortisone were decreased for CS when opposed to the rest of the study population. Moreover, after analysis of potential confounding factors, it was also possible to distinguish six steroid hormones which discriminated CS patients from other study subjects. The obtained discriminant functions enabled classification of CS patients and AI group characterized by mild hypersecretion of cortisol metabolites. It can be concluded that steroid hormones selected by applying urinary profiling may serve the role of potential biomarkers of CS and can aid in its early diagnosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cushing’s syndrome; metabolomics; multivariate analysis; biomarkers; steroid hormones; urinary profiling; gas chromatography; linear discriminant analysis Cushing’s syndrome; metabolomics; multivariate analysis; biomarkers; steroid hormones; urinary profiling; gas chromatography; linear discriminant analysis
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Kotłowska, A.; Puzyn, T.; Sworczak, K.; Stepnowski, P.; Szefer, P. Metabolomic Biomarkers in Urine of Cushing’s Syndrome Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 294.

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