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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 296; doi:10.3390/ijms18020296

Recurrent Pneumonia in Children: A Reasoned Diagnostic Approach and a Single Centre Experience

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Federico II University, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susanna Esposito
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumonia: Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Prevention)
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Abstract

Recurrent pneumonia (RP), i.e., at least two episodes of pneumonia in one year or three episodes ever with intercritical radiographic clearing of densities, occurs in 7.7%–9% of children with community-acquired pneumonia. In RP, the challenge is to discriminate between children with self-limiting or minor problems, that do not require a diagnostic work-up, and those with an underlying disease. The aim of the current review is to discuss a reasoned diagnostic approach to RP in childhood. Particular emphasis has been placed on which children should undergo a diagnostic work-up and which tests should be performed. A pediatric case series is also presented, in order to document a single centre experience of RP. A management algorithm for the approach to children with RP, based on the evidence from a literature review, is proposed. Like all algorithms, it is not meant to replace clinical judgment, but it should drive physicians to adopt a systematic approach to pediatric RP and provide a useful guide to the clinician. View Full-Text
Keywords: community-acquired pneumonia; lower respiratory tract infections; recurrent pneumonia; diagnosis; children community-acquired pneumonia; lower respiratory tract infections; recurrent pneumonia; diagnosis; children
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Montella, S.; Corcione, A.; Santamaria, F. Recurrent Pneumonia in Children: A Reasoned Diagnostic Approach and a Single Centre Experience. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 296.

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