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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 265; doi:10.3390/ijms18020265

Role of Antioxidants in Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Brain Injury: New Therapeutic Approaches

1
Department of Cell Biology & Histology, School of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain
2
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Basurto University Hospital, School of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain
3
Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain
4
Neurogenomiks Laboratory, Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, Bizkaia Science and Technology Park, 48170 Zamudio, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chris Sobey
Received: 23 October 2016 / Revised: 14 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 28 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1339 KB, uploaded 28 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Hypoxic–ischemic brain damage is an alarming health and economic problem in spite of the advances in neonatal care. It can cause mortality or detrimental neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits in neonates. When hypoxia–ischemia occurs, a multi-faceted cascade of events starts out, which can eventually cause cell death. Lower levels of oxygen due to reduced blood supply increase the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative stress, a higher concentration of free cytosolic calcium and impaired mitochondrial function, triggering the activation of apoptotic pathways, DNA fragmentation and cell death. The high incidence of this type of lesion in newborns can be partly attributed to the fact that the developing brain is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Since antioxidants can safely interact with free radicals and terminate that chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged, exogenous antioxidant therapy may have the potential to diminish cellular damage caused by hypoxia–ischemia. In this review, we focus on the neuroprotective effects of antioxidant treatments against perinatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury, in the light of the most recent advances. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant; neuroprotection; hypoxia–ischemia; brain; newborn antioxidant; neuroprotection; hypoxia–ischemia; brain; newborn
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Arteaga, O.; Álvarez, A.; Revuelta, M.; Santaolalla, F.; Urtasun, A.; Hilario, E. Role of Antioxidants in Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Brain Injury: New Therapeutic Approaches. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 265.

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