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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2697; doi:10.3390/ijms18122697

Advances in Proteomic Techniques for Cytokine Analysis: Focus on Melanoma Research

1
Laboratory of Applied Proteome Analyses, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Rumburska 89, 27721 Libechov, Czech Republic
2
Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 16500 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7, 12843 Prague 4, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract

Melanoma is a skin cancer with permanently increasing incidence and resistance to therapies in advanced stages. Reports of spontaneous regression and tumour infiltration with T-lymphocytes makes melanoma candidate for immunotherapies. Cytokines are key factors regulating immune response and intercellular communication in tumour microenvironment. Cytokines may be used in therapy of melanoma to modulate immune response. Cytokines also possess diagnostic and prognostic potential and cytokine production may reflect effects of immunotherapies. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of recent advances in proteomic techniques for the detection and quantification of cytokines in melanoma research. Approaches covered span from mass spectrometry to immunoassays for single molecule detection (ELISA, western blot), multiplex assays (chemiluminescent, bead-based (Luminex) and planar antibody arrays), ultrasensitive techniques (Singulex, Simoa, immuno-PCR, proximity ligation/extension assay, immunomagnetic reduction assay), to analyses of single cells producing cytokines (ELISpot, flow cytometry, mass cytometry and emerging techniques for single cell secretomics). Although this review is focused mainly on cancer and particularly melanoma, the discussed techniques are in general applicable to broad research field of biology and medicine, including stem cells, development, aging, immunology and intercellular communication. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokine; cancer; melanoma; secretome; proteomics; T-cell; biomarker; ultrasensitive; immunoassay; mass spectrometry cytokine; cancer; melanoma; secretome; proteomics; T-cell; biomarker; ultrasensitive; immunoassay; mass spectrometry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kupcova Skalnikova, H.; Cizkova, J.; Cervenka, J.; Vodicka, P. Advances in Proteomic Techniques for Cytokine Analysis: Focus on Melanoma Research. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2697.

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