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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2401; doi:10.3390/ijms18112401

Spirulina maxima Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairments via Inhibiting GSK-3β Phosphorylation Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Amyloid-β 1–42 in Mice

1
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Kyonggi 13488, Korea
2
Department of Food Science and Engineering, Seowon University, Cheongju 28674, Korea
3
Jeju International Marine Science Center for Research & Education, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST), Jeju 63349, Korea
4
Division of Applied Life Science, Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mechanism of Action of Food Components in Disease Prevention 2017)
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Abstract

Spirulina maxima, a microalga containing high levels of protein and many polyphenols, including chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. However, the mechanisms where by Spirulina maxima ameliorates cognitive disorders induced by amyloid-β 1–42 (Aβ1–42) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether a 70% ethanol extract of Spirulina maxima (SM70EE) ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1–42 in mice. SM70EE increased the step-through latency time in the passive avoidance test and decreased the escape latency time in the Morris water maze test in Aβ1–42-injected mice. SM70EE reduced hippocampal Aβ1–42 levels and inhibited amyloid precursor protein processing-associated factors in Aβ1–42-injected mice. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity was suppressed by SM70EE in Aβ1–42-injected mice. Hippocampal glutathione levels were examined to determine the effects of SM70EE on oxidative stress in Aβ1–42-injected mice. SM70EE increased the levels of glutathione and its associated factors that were reduced in Aβ1–42-injected mice. SM70EE also promoted activation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase signaling pathway and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These findings suggested that SM70EE ameliorated Aβ1–42-induced cognitive impairments by inhibiting the increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β caused by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1–42 in mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive impairment; Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE); amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing; oxidative stress; glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) cognitive impairment; Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE); amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing; oxidative stress; glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koh, E.-J.; Kim, K.-J.; Song, J.-H.; Choi, J.; Lee, H.Y.; Kang, D.-H.; Heo, H.J.; Lee, B.-Y. Spirulina maxima Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairments via Inhibiting GSK-3β Phosphorylation Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Amyloid-β 1–42 in Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2401.

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