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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2370; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112370

Physical, Structural, Barrier, and Antifungal Characterization of Chitosan–Zein Edible Films with Added Essential Oils

1
Department of Food Research and Postgraduate Studies, C.U., Autonomous University of Querétaro, Cerro de las Campanas S/N, Las Campanas, Santiago de Querétaro 76010, Mexico
2
Department of Biochemical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute, Av. Wilfrido Massieu Esq. Cda. Miguel Stampa S/N, Gustavo A. Madero, Ciudad de México 07738, Mexico
3
Faculty of Nutrition, Research Laboratory, Autonomous University of the State of Morelos, Vista Hermosa S/N, Cuernavaca 62350, Mexico
4
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 21, 80126 Napoli, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Food Edible Coatings)
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Abstract

Edible films (EFs) have gained great interest due to their ability to keep foods safe, maintaining their physical and organoleptic properties for a longer time. The aim of this work was to develop EFs based on a chitosan–zein mixture with three different essential oils (EOs) added: anise, orange, and cinnamon, and to characterize them to establish the relationship between their structural and physical properties. The addition of an EO into an EF significantly affected (p < 0.05) the a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) values of the film surface. The EFs presented a refractive index between 1.35 and 1.55, and thus are classified as transparent. The physical properties of EFs with an added EO were improved, and films that incorporated the anise EO showed significantly lower water vapor permeability (1.2 ± 0.1 g mm h−1 m−2 kPa−1) and high hardness (104.3 ± 3.22 MPa). EFs with an added EO were able to inhibit the growth of Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. to a larger extent than without an EO. Films’ structural changes were the result of chemical interactions among amino acid side chains from zein, glucosamine from chitosan, and cinnamaldehyde, anethole, or limonene from the EOs as detected by a Raman analysis. The incorporation of an EO in the EFs’ formulation could represent an alternative use as coatings to enhance the shelf life of food products. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; edible films; raman spectroscopy; chitosan; zein; Rhizopus; Penicllium essential oils; edible films; raman spectroscopy; chitosan; zein; Rhizopus; Penicllium
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Escamilla-García, M.; Calderón-Domínguez, G.; Chanona-Pérez, J.J.; Mendoza-Madrigal, A.G.; Di Pierro, P.; García-Almendárez, B.E.; Amaro-Reyes, A.; Regalado-González, C. Physical, Structural, Barrier, and Antifungal Characterization of Chitosan–Zein Edible Films with Added Essential Oils. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2370.

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