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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112359

Down-Regulation of Transglutaminase 2 Stimulates Redifferentiation of Dedifferentiated Chondrocytes through Enhancing Glucose Metabolism

1
Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si 13488, Korea
2
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam-si 13496, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
3
College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Department of Bioindustrial Technologies, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
4
Department of Neurosurgery, CHA University, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam-si 13496, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Expansion of chondrocytes for repair of articular cartilage can lead to dedifferentiation, making it difficult to obtain a sufficient quantity of chondrocytes. Although previous studies have suggested that culture in a three-dimensional environment induces redifferentiation of dedifferentiated chondrocytes, its underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood in terms of metabolism compared with a two-dimensional environment. In this study, we demonstrate that attenuation of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a multifunctional enzyme, stimulates redifferentiation of dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Fibroblast-like morphological changes increased as TG2 expression increased in passage-dependent manner. When dedifferentiated chondrocytes were cultured in a pellet culture system, TG2 expression was reduced and glycolytic enzyme expression up-regulated. Previous studies demonstrated that TG2 influences energy metabolism, and impaired glycolytic metabolism causes chondrocyte dedifferentiation. Interestingly, TG2 knockdown improved chondrogenic gene expression, glycolytic enzyme expression, and lactate production in a monolayer culture system. Taken together, down-regulation of TG2 is involved in redifferentiaton of dedifferentiated chondrocytes through enhancing glucose metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: chondrocytes; redifferentiation; transglutaminase 2; glycolytic metabolism chondrocytes; redifferentiation; transglutaminase 2; glycolytic metabolism
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Ko, K.-W.; Choi, B.; Park, S.; Arai, Y.; Choi, W.C.; Lee, J.-M.; Bae, H.; Han, I.-B.; Lee, S.-H. Down-Regulation of Transglutaminase 2 Stimulates Redifferentiation of Dedifferentiated Chondrocytes through Enhancing Glucose Metabolism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2359.

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