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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2323; doi:10.3390/ijms18112323

Divalent Cations Regulate the Ion Conductance Properties of Diverse Classes of Aquaporins

1
Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
2
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaporins: Water Channels Essential for Living Organisms)
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Abstract

Aquaporins (AQPs) are known to facilitate water and solute fluxes across barrier membranes. An increasing number of AQPs are being found to serve as ion channels. Ion and water permeability of selected plant and animal AQPs (plant Arabidopsis thaliana AtPIP2;1, AtPIP2;2, AtPIP2;7, human Homo sapiens HsAQP1, rat Rattus norvegicus RnAQP4, RnAQP5, and fly Drosophila melanogaster DmBIB) were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined in chelator-buffered salines to evaluate the effects of divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+ and Cd2+) on ionic conductances. AtPIP2;1, AtPIP2;2, HsAQP1 and DmBIB expressing oocytes had ionic conductances, and showed differential sensitivity to block by external Ca2+. The order of potency of inhibition by Ca2+ was AtPIP2;2 > AtPIP2;1 > DmBIB > HsAQP1. Blockage of the AQP cation channels by Ba2+ and Cd2+ caused voltage-sensitive outward rectification. The channels with the highest sensitivity to Ca2+ (AtPIP2;1 and AtPIP2;2) showed a distinctive relief of the Ca2+ block by co-application of excess Ba2+, suggesting that divalent ions act at the same site. Recognizing the regulatory role of divalent cations may enable the discovery of other classes of AQP ion channels, and facilitate the development of tools for modulating AQP ion channels. Modulators of AQPs have potential value for diverse applications including improving salinity tolerance in plants, controlling vector-borne diseases, and intervening in serious clinical conditions involving AQPs, such as cancer metastasis, cardiovascular or renal dysfunction. View Full-Text
Keywords: water channel; aquaporin; Arabidopsis; Drosophila; vertebrates; invertebrates; regulation; divalent cations water channel; aquaporin; Arabidopsis; Drosophila; vertebrates; invertebrates; regulation; divalent cations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kourghi, M.; Nourmohammadi, S.; Pei, J.V.; Qiu, J.; McGaughey, S.; Tyerman, S.D.; Byrt, C.S.; Yool, A.J. Divalent Cations Regulate the Ion Conductance Properties of Diverse Classes of Aquaporins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2323.

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