Next Article in Journal
Diurnal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Measures and Inflammatory Marker Correlates in Major Depressive Disorder
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Different Skin Penetration Promoters in Halobetasol Propionate Permeation and Retention in Human Skin
Previous Article in Journal
Stress and the HPA Axis: Balancing Homeostasis and Fertility
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antioxidant Artemisia princeps Extract Enhances the Expression of Filaggrin and Loricrin via the AHR/OVOL1 Pathway
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102227

The MEK Inhibitors Trametinib and Cobimetinib Induce a Type I Interferon Response in Human Keratinocytes

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata, IRCCS, 00167 Rome, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Skin Conditions 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2126 KB, uploaded 24 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MEK) 1 and 2 have crucial roles in tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, and protection from apoptosis, and their inhibition is therefore an attractive therapeutic strategy in cancer. Orally available and highly selective MEK inhibitors have been developed and assessed in numerous clinical trials, either alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or other targeted agents. Of note, a complex picture of class-specific adverse effects associates with these drugs, frequently including inflammatory skin rash. Here, we investigated the response of normal human keratinocytes to the MEK inhibitors trametinib and cobimetinib, alone and in combination with the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) inhibitors dabrafenib and vemurafenib, in terms of signal transduction and de novo gene expression. MEK inhibitors triggered enhanced expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and up-regulated the keratinocyte-specific type I interferon κ (IFN-κ), the anti-viral effectors interferon-induced tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT) 1 and 2, and the pro-inflammatory chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and the C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), both at the mRNA and protein level. Impairment of IRF1 expression, or abrogation of STAT1 phosphorylation due to IFN-κ gene silencing, suppressed anti-viral and pro-inflammatory gene expression. These data suggest that, similar to what we observed for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blockade, MEK inhibition activates a type I interferon response, which is now recognized as an effective anti-cancer response, in human epidermal keratinocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: dabrafenib; vemurafenib; signal transduction; interferon κ; chemokine dabrafenib; vemurafenib; signal transduction; interferon κ; chemokine
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lulli, D.; Carbone, M.L.; Pastore, S. The MEK Inhibitors Trametinib and Cobimetinib Induce a Type I Interferon Response in Human Keratinocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2227.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top