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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2122; doi:10.3390/ijms18102122

The Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma to the Treatment of Chronic Equine Laminitis: A Proof of Concept

1
Dipartimento Scienze Mediche Veterinarie, Università di Parma, Via del taglio, 10, 43126 Parma, Italy
2
Veterinary Practitioner, Dipartimento Scienze Mediche Veterinarie, Università di Parma, Via del taglio, 10, 43126 Parma, Italy
3
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna, Via Bianchi 9, 25124 Brescia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract

Laminitis, a highly debilitating disease of the foot in ungulates, is characterized by pathological changes of the complex lamellar structures that maintain the appendicular skeleton within the hoof. Laminitis is a multifactorial disease that involves perturbation of the vascular, hematological, and inflammatory homeostasis of the foot. Interestingly, the pathogenesis of the disease resembles what is observed in metabolic syndromes and sepsis-induced organ failure in humans and animals. We hypothesized that local administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) might contribute to establishing an anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic environment, and could stimulate the injured tissue in order to restore its functional integrity. According to this assumption, an experimental protocol based on the local intravenous administration of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (aMSCs) in combination with PRP was developed for the treatment of horses affected by chronic laminitis. Nine horses with severely compromised venograms (showing grade III and IV laminitis) that had been unsuccessfully treated with conventional therapies were enrolled. aMSCs and PRP (15 × 106 cells resuspended in 15 mL of PRP) were injected into the lateral or medial digital vein three times, at one-month intervals. The first administration was performed with allogeneic aMSCs, while for the following administrations, autologous aMSCs were used. There was no adverse short-term reaction to the intravenous injection of aMSCs. In the long term, venograms outlined, in all subjects, a progressive amelioration of the vascularization of the foot. An improvement in the structure and function of the hoof was also observed. No adverse events were reported during the follow-up, and the horses returned to a comfortable quality of life. Although the number of animals enrolled in the study is limited, both clinical observations and venography demonstrated an enhancement in the condition of all horses, suggesting that the regenerative therapies in chronic laminitis could be useful, and are worthy of further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; platelet-rich plasma; regenerative medicine; equine; laminitis mesenchymal stem cells; platelet-rich plasma; regenerative medicine; equine; laminitis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Angelone, M.; Conti, V.; Biacca, C.; Battaglia, B.; Pecorari, L.; Piana, F.; Gnudi, G.; Leonardi, F.; Ramoni, R.; Basini, G.; Dotti, S.; Renzi, S.; Ferrari, M.; Grolli, S. The Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma to the Treatment of Chronic Equine Laminitis: A Proof of Concept. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2122.

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