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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2108; doi:10.3390/ijms18102108

Translational Implication of Galectin-9 in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Viral Infection

1
Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 33305, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Medical Science, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
3
Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan 35053, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 8 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Galectins in Cancer and Translational Medicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [364 KB, uploaded 11 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

The interaction between galectin-9 and its receptor, Tim-3, triggers a series of signaling events that regulate immune responses. The expression of galectin-9 has been shown to be increased in a variety of target cells of many different viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), influenza virus, dengue virus (DENV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This enhanced expression of galectin-9 following viral infection promotes significant changes in the behaviors of the virus-infected cells, and the resulting events tightly correlate with the immunopathogenesis of the viral disease. Because the human immune response to different viral infections can vary, and the lack of appropriate treatment can have potentially fatal consequences, understanding the implications of galectin-9 is crucial for developing better methods for monitoring and treating viral infections. This review seeks to address how we can apply the current understanding of galectin-9 function to better understand the pathogenesis of viral infection and better treat viral diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: translational medicine; galectin-9; pathogenesis; treatment; viral infection translational medicine; galectin-9; pathogenesis; treatment; viral infection
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Lai, J.-H.; Luo, S.-F.; Wang, M.-Y.; Ho, L.-J. Translational Implication of Galectin-9 in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Viral Infection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2108.

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