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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 8; doi:10.3390/ijms18010008

Metabolic Adaptation in Obesity and Type II Diabetes: Myokines, Adipokines and Hepatokines

1
Metabolic Regulation Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Korea
2
Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 34141, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lu Cai
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2077 KB, uploaded 22 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Obesity and type II diabetes are characterized by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. A high caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is the leading cause of these conditions. Whole-body insulin resistance and its improvement are the result of the combined actions of each insulin-sensitive organ. Among the fundamental molecular mechanisms by which each organ is able to communicate and engage in cross-talk are cytokines or peptides which stem from secretory organs. Recently, it was reported that several cytokines or peptides are secreted from muscle (myokines), adipose tissue (adipokines) and liver (hepatokines) in response to certain nutrition and/or physical activity conditions. Cytokines exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The present review is focused on the relationship and cross-talk amongst muscle, adipose tissue and the liver as secretory organs in metabolic diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: myokines; adipokines; hepatokines; obesity; type II diabetes myokines; adipokines; hepatokines; obesity; type II diabetes
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Oh, K.-J.; Lee, D.S.; Kim, W.K.; Han, B.S.; Lee, S.C.; Bae, K.-H. Metabolic Adaptation in Obesity and Type II Diabetes: Myokines, Adipokines and Hepatokines. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 8.

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