Next Article in Journal
Bispecific Antibodies as a Development Platform for New Concepts and Treatment Strategies
Next Article in Special Issue
Lysyl Oxidase and the Tumor Microenvironment
Previous Article in Journal
TGF-β and Physiological Root Resorption of Deciduous Teeth
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characterization of the Microenvironment of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 51; doi:10.3390/ijms18010051

Lymph Nodes and Cancer Metastasis: New Perspectives on the Role of Intranodal Lymphatic Sinuses

Faculty of Welfare and Health Science, Oita University, Oita 870-1192, Japan
Academic Editor: Li Yang
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment and Metabolism)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3039 KB, uploaded 28 December 2016]   |  


The lymphatic system is essential for transporting interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs). Functional integrity of LNs is dependent on intact lymphatics and effective lymph drainage. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) during tumor progression still remain to be identified. The cellular and molecular structures of LNs are optimized to trigger a rapid and efficient immune response, and to participate in the process of tumor metastasis by stimulating lymphangiogenesis and establishing a premetastatic niche in LNs. Several molecules, e.g., S1P, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21, CXCL12/CXCR4, IL-7, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and integrin α4β1 play an important role in controlling the activity of LN stromal cells including LECs, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and follicular dendritic cells (DCs). The functional stromal cells are critical for reconstruction and remodeling of the LN that creates a unique microenvironment of tumor cells and LECs for cancer metastasis. LN metastasis is a major determinant for the prognosis of most human cancers and clinical management. Ongoing work to elucidate the function and molecular regulation of LN lymphatic sinuses will provide insight into cancer development mechanisms and improve therapeutic approaches for human malignancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: lymph nodes; lymphatic endothelial cells; cancer metastasis; lymphangiogenesis; VEGF-A/-C/-D lymph nodes; lymphatic endothelial cells; cancer metastasis; lymphangiogenesis; VEGF-A/-C/-D

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ji, R.-C. Lymph Nodes and Cancer Metastasis: New Perspectives on the Role of Intranodal Lymphatic Sinuses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 51.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top