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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 168; doi:10.3390/ijms18010168

6-Paradol and 6-Shogaol, the Pungent Compounds of Ginger, Promote Glucose Utilization in Adipocytes and Myotubes, and 6-Paradol Reduces Blood Glucose in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

1
Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain-Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
4
School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
5
Chinese Medicine Research and Development Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
6
Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
7
Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, College of Marine Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
8
Lipid Science and Aging Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
9
Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maurizio Battino and Francesca Giampieri
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6150 KB, uploaded 17 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

The anti-diabetic activity of ginger powder (Zingiber officinale) has been recently promoted, with the recommendation to be included as one of the dietary supplements for diabetic patients. However, previous studies presented different results, which may be caused by degradation and metabolic changes of ginger components, gingerols, shogaols and paradols. Therefore, we prepared 10 ginger active components, namely 6-, 8-, 10-paradols, 6-, 8-, 10-shogaols, 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and zingerone, and evaluated their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Among the tested compounds, 6-paradol and 6-shogaol showed potent activity in stimulating glucose utilization by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. The effects were attributed to the increase in 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 6-Paradol, the major metabolite of 6-shogaol, was utilized in an in vivo assay and significantly reduced blood glucose, cholesterol and body weight in high-fat diet-fed mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: 6-paradol; shogaols; 3T3-L1 adipocytes; C2C12 myotubes; high-fat diet-fed mice; diabetes mellitus 6-paradol; shogaols; 3T3-L1 adipocytes; C2C12 myotubes; high-fat diet-fed mice; diabetes mellitus
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Wei, C.-K.; Tsai, Y.-H.; Korinek, M.; Hung, P.-H.; El-Shazly, M.; Cheng, Y.-B.; Wu, Y.-C.; Hsieh, T.-J.; Chang, F.-R. 6-Paradol and 6-Shogaol, the Pungent Compounds of Ginger, Promote Glucose Utilization in Adipocytes and Myotubes, and 6-Paradol Reduces Blood Glucose in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 168.

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