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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 153; doi:10.3390/ijms18010153

Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoids in Flower Color Mutations of Primula veris L.

1
Institute of Botany, Hohenheim University, Garbenstr. 30, 70559 Stuttgart, Germany
2
WALA Heilmittel GmbH, Department of Analytical Development & Research, Section Phytochemical Research, Dorfstr. 1, 73087 Bad Boll/Eckwälden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ute Roessner
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 13 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in the Plant Sciences)
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Abstract

Primula veris L. is an important medicinal plant with documented use for the treatment of gout, headache and migraine reaching back to the Middle Ages. Triterpenoid saponins from roots and flowers are used in up-to-date phytotherapeutic treatment of bronchitis and colds due to their expectorant and secretolytic effects. In addition to the wild type plants with yellow petals, a red variant and an intermediate orange form of Primula veris L. have recently been found in a natural habitat. The secondary metabolite profiles of roots, leaves and flowers of these rare variants were investigated and compared with the wild type metabolome. Two flavonoids, six flavonoid glycosides, four novel methylated flavonoid glycosides, five anthocyanins and three triterpenoid saponins were identified in alcoholic extracts from the petals, leaves and roots of the three variants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)/mass spectrometry (MSn) analyses. Anthocyanins were detected in the petals of the red and orange variety, but not in the wild type. No other effects on the metabolite profiles of the three varieties have been observed. The possibility is discussed that a regulatory step of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway may have been affected by mutation thus triggering color polymorphism in the petals. View Full-Text
Keywords: Primula veris L.; primrose; HPLC-DAD-MSn; triterpenoid saponins; flavonoids; anthocyanins; color polymorphism Primula veris L.; primrose; HPLC-DAD-MSn; triterpenoid saponins; flavonoids; anthocyanins; color polymorphism
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Apel, L.; Kammerer, D.R.; Stintzing, F.C.; Spring, O. Comparative Metabolite Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins and Flavonoids in Flower Color Mutations of Primula veris L.. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 153.

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