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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1536; doi:10.3390/ijms17091536

Linear and Non-Linear Optical Imaging of Cancer Cells with Silicon Nanoparticles

1
Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena 07745, Germany
2
Physics Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia
3
Interational Laboratory “Bio-Nanophotonics”, National Research Nuclear University “Moscow Engineering Physics Institute”, Moscow 115409, Russia
4
Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science, Pushino 142290, Russia
5
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena 07743, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athanasios Salifoglou
Received: 6 June 2016 / Revised: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 12 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3899 KB, uploaded 12 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10–40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells. Advantages of the nonlinear methods, such as rapid imaging, which prevents cells from overheating and larger penetration depth compared to the single-photon excited HR-SIM, are discussed. The obtained results reveal new perspectives of the multimodal visualisation and precise detection of the uptake of biodegradable non-toxic SiNPs by cancer cells and they are discussed in view of future applications for the optical diagnostics of cancer tumours. View Full-Text
Keywords: silicon nanoparticles; nanowires; multimodal bioimaging; high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM); Raman spectroscopy; coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS); two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) silicon nanoparticles; nanowires; multimodal bioimaging; high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM); Raman spectroscopy; coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS); two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tolstik, E.; Osminkina, L.A.; Akimov, D.; Gongalsky, M.B.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.; Timoshenko, V.Y.; Heintzmann, R.; Sivakov, V.; Popp, J. Linear and Non-Linear Optical Imaging of Cancer Cells with Silicon Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1536.

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