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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1193; doi:10.3390/ijms17081193

Accumulation and Toxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Cells and Experimental Animals

1
Biomedical Physics Laboratory of National Cancer Institute, Baublio 3B, LT08406 Vilnius, Lithuania
2
Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
3
Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania
4
Biophotonics group of Laser Research Centre, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, c.3, LT-10222 Vilnius, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vladimir Sivakov
Received: 28 May 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Nanostructures in Biological Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [10045 KB, uploaded 19 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

The uptake and distribution of negatively charged superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (SPIONs) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH3T3, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal influenced by SPIONs injected into experimental animals, were visualized and investigated. Cellular uptake and distribution of the SPIONs in NIH3T3 after staining with Prussian Blue were investigated by a bright-field microscope equipped with digital color camera. SPIONs were localized in vesicles, mostly placed near the nucleus. Toxicity of SPION nanoparticles tested with cell viability assay (XTT) was estimated. The viability of NIH3T3 cells remains approximately 95% within 3–24 h of incubation, and only a slight decrease of viability was observed after 48 h of incubation. MRI studies on Wistar rats using a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner were showing that SPIONs give a negative contrast in the MRI. The dynamic MRI measurements of the SPION clearance from the injection site shows that SPIONs slowly disappear from injection sites and only a low concentration of nanoparticles was completely eliminated within three weeks. No functionalized SPIONs accumulate in cells by endocytic mechanism, none accumulate in the nucleus, and none are toxic at a desirable concentration. Therefore, they could be used as a dual imaging agent: as contrast agents for MRI and for traditional optical biopsy by using Prussian Blue staining. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles; SPIONs; iron oxide; cellular uptake; MRI-optical dual imaging; optical biopsy of tissues cells; multifunctional cancer diagnostics magnetic nanoparticles; SPIONs; iron oxide; cellular uptake; MRI-optical dual imaging; optical biopsy of tissues cells; multifunctional cancer diagnostics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jarockyte, G.; Daugelaite, E.; Stasys, M.; Statkute, U.; Poderys, V.; Tseng, T.-C.; Hsu, S.-H.; Karabanovas, V.; Rotomskis, R. Accumulation and Toxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Cells and Experimental Animals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1193.

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