Next Article in Journal
Electrospun Poly(l-lactide)/Poly(ethylene glycol) Scaffolds Seeded with Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Urethral Epithelium Repair
Next Article in Special Issue
The Role of Cyclo(His-Pro) in Neurodegeneration
Previous Article in Journal
β-Ketoacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Synthase I (KASI) Plays Crucial Roles in the Plant Growth and Fatty Acids Synthesis in Tobacco
Previous Article in Special Issue
Neuroprotective Effect of Salvianolic Acids against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1179; doi:10.3390/ijms17081179

Cytoprotection against Hypoxic and/or MPP+ Injury: Effect of δ–Opioid Receptor Activation on Caspase 3

1,†
,
1,†
,
1
,
1
,
1,* and 2,*
1
Modern Medical Research Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213000, Jiangsu, China
2
Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Received: 5 June 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2772 KB, uploaded 9 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

The pathological changes of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are, at least partially, associated with the dysregulation of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and caspase 3. Since hypoxic and neurotoxic insults are underlying causes of PD, and since δ-opioid receptor (DOR) is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic insults, we sought to determine whether DOR activation could protect the cells from damage induced by hypoxia and/or MPP+ by regulating PINK1 and caspase 3 expressions. We exposed PC12 cells to either severe hypoxia (0.5%–1% O2) for 24–48 h or to MPP+ at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 mM) and then detected the levels of PINK1 and cleaved caspase 3. Both hypoxia and MPP+ reduced cell viability, progressively suppressed the expression of PINK1 and increased the cleaved caspase 3. DOR activation using UFP-512, effectively protected the cells from hypoxia and/or MPP+ induced injury, reversed the reduction in PINK1 protein and significantly attenuated the increase in the cleaved caspase 3. On the other hand, the application of DOR antagonist, naltrindole, greatly decreased cell viability and increased cleaved caspase 3. These findings suggest that DOR is cytoprotective against both hypoxia and MPP+ through the regulation of PINK1 and caspase 3 pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; δ-opioid receptor; cytoprotection; hypoxia; MPP+; PINK1; caspase 3 Parkinson’s disease; δ-opioid receptor; cytoprotection; hypoxia; MPP+; PINK1; caspase 3
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, Y.; Zhi, F.; Shao, N.; Wang, R.; Yang, Y.; Xia, Y. Cytoprotection against Hypoxic and/or MPP+ Injury: Effect of δ–Opioid Receptor Activation on Caspase 3. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1179.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top