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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1144; doi:10.3390/ijms17071144

Signaling Pathways in Melanogenesis

1
Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 85 Park Rd. Grafton, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
2
Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, University of Auckland, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 85 Park Rd. Grafton, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manickam Sugumaran
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemistry and Mechanisms of Melanogenesis)
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Abstract

Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in skin, hair follicles, eyes, inner ear, bones, heart and brain of humans. They arise from pluripotent neural crest cells and differentiate in response to a complex network of interacting regulatory pathways. Melanins are pigment molecules that are endogenously synthesized by melanocytes. The light absorption of melanin in skin and hair leads to photoreceptor shielding, thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage and display coloring. Melanins are also powerful cation chelators and may act as free radical sinks. Melanin formation is a product of complex biochemical events that starts from amino acid tyrosine and its metabolite, dopa. The types and amounts of melanin produced by melanocytes are determined genetically and are influenced by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as hormonal changes, inflammation, age and exposure to UV light. These stimuli affect the different pathways in melanogenesis. In this review we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved in melanogenesis and explain how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate melanin production. We will also explain the regulatory roles of different proteins involved in melanogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanogenesis; signaling pathways in melanogenesis; MITF; tyrosinase melanogenesis; signaling pathways in melanogenesis; MITF; tyrosinase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

D’Mello, S.A.N.; Finlay, G.J.; Baguley, B.C.; Askarian-Amiri, M.E. Signaling Pathways in Melanogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1144.

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